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February 22, 2007

COMPUTER BASICS

Filed under: COMPUTER BASICS — sandy240887 @ 5:24 am
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1.What is computer?

Ans. A computer is an electronic device that executes the instructions in a program.

2.What are functions of Computer???

Ans.1.Accepts data.
2.processes data
3.produces output
4.Stores result.

3.What is a work station?

Ans.A workstation is part of a computer network and generally would be expected to have more than a regular desktop PC of most everything, like memory, storage space, and speed

4.What is Mainframe computer?

Ans. The main frame is the workhorse of the business world. A main frame is the heart of a network of computers or terminals which allows hundreds of people to work at the same time on the same data. It requires a special environment – cold and dry.
Main Frame computer

5.What is super computer?

Ans. The supercomputer is the top of the heap in power and expense. These are used for jobs that take massive amounts of calculating, like weather forecasting, engineering design and testing, serious decryption, economic forecasting, etc.

6.What is a Server?

server computer

Ans. The term server actually refers to a computer’s function rather than to a specific kind of computer. A server runs a network of computers. It handles the sharing of equipment like printers and the communication between computers on the network. For such tasks a computer would need to be somewhat more capable than a desktop computer. It would need:

· More power
· Larger memory
· Larger storage capacity
· High speed communications

7.What is mini computer?

Ans. The minicomputer has become less important since the PC has gotten so powerful on its own. In fact, the ordinary new PC is much more powerful than minicomputers used to be. Originally this size was developed to handle specific tasks, like engineering and CAD calculations, that tended to tie up the main frame.


8.What is graphical interface?

Ans. A graphical user interface (GUI- sometimes pronounced GOO-ee) uses pictures to make it easier for the user. It is more user friendly.
The example below is from Windows 95/98. The use of drop-down menus, windows, buttons, and icons was first successfully marketed by Apple on the Macintosh computer. These ideas are now as standard for graphical interfaces as door knobs are for doors.

9.What is spread sheet?

Ans.spreadsheet gifA spreadsheet is the application of choice for most documents that organize numbers, like budgets, financial statements, grade sheets, and sales records. A spreadsheet can perform simple or complex calculations on the numbers you enter
In rows and columns.

Some popular spreadsheets include MS Excel, Lotus 1-2-3, and Quattro Pro.

10.Types of inputs?

Ans. Data is the raw facts given to the computer.
Programs are the sets of instructions that direct the computer.
Commands are special codes or key words that the user inputs to perform a task, like RUN “ACCOUNTS”. These can be selected from a menu of commands like “Open” on the File menu. Clicking on a command button may also choose them.
Userresponse is the user’s answer to the computer’s question, such as choosing OK, YES, or NO or by typing in text, for example the name of a file.

11.Types of input devices?

Ans. Key board
Mouse
Game devices
Pen input,
Touch screen.

12.What is multimedia?

Ans. Multimedia is a combination of sound and images with text and graphics. This would include movies, animations, music, people talking, sound effects like the roar of a crowd and smashing glass.


13.What is data automation?

Ans. The first goal of data automation is to avoid mistakes in data entry by making the initial entering of the data as automatic as possible. Different situations require different methods and equipment.
A second goal of data automation is to avoid having to re-enter data to perform a different task with it.


14.What is OCR software?

Ans.Optical Character Recognition: This software takes a scanned image and converts the characters in the image into computer characters. The document can now be edited with a word processor. This is a very tricky process. Documents must be carefully checked for wrong conversions. If the original print was not very crisp and clean, errors are very likely. Manually checking for proper translation is necessary. These programs are getting really good if they have a clear scan to work with.


15.Different types of digital codes?

Ans. All letters, numbers, and symbols are assigned code values of 1’s and 0’s. Digital devices use a number of different digital coding schemes.
Three common code sets are:
ASCII (used in UNIX and DOS/Windows-based computers)
EBCDIC (for IBM System 390 main frames)
Unicode (for Windows NT and recent browsers)

16.What is CPU?

Ans.
. system unit gif
The CPU, or Central Processing Unit, is the part of the computer where work gets done. In most computers, there is one processing chip.
Main Memory stores the commands that the CPU executes and the results.

17.What is control unit?

Ans. This is the part of the computer that controls the Machine Cycle. It takes numerous cycles to do even a simple addition of two numbers.

18.What is Machine cycle?

Ans.

Fetch- get an instruction from Main Memory
Decode- translate it into computer commands
Execute- actually process the command
Store- write the result to Main Memory

machine cycle gif

19.What is an ALU?
Ans. ALU stands for Arithmetic/Logic Unit
This is the part that executes the computer’s commands.
A command must be either a basic arithmetic operation:
+ – * /
or one of the logical comparisons:
> < = not =.
Everything else has to be broken down into these few operations. Only one operation is done in each Machine Cycle.
The ALU can only do one thing at a time but can work very, very fast.


20.What is an operating system?

Ans. It is an interface between user and computer.
Some common operating systems are DOS, various versions of Windows, OS/2, UNIX, LINUX, System 7. These all behave in very different ways and have different hardware requirements. So they won’t all run on all machines.


21.What is multitasking?

Ans. By taking turns with the Machine Cycle, modern computers can have several different programs running at once. This is called multi-tasking.

22.Types of output??

printed copy gif Hard copy:
printed on paper or other permanent media
screen display gif Soft copy:
displayed on screen or by other non-permanent means

Ans.

23.Different types of output devices?

Ans. Different output devices are the printer and the computer screen.

24.What is function of main memory?

Ans. Main Memory = Primary Storage

Main memory keeps track of what is currently being processed. It’s volatile, meaning that turning the power off erases all of the data.
main memory diagram gif
For Main Memory, computers use RAM, or Random Access Memory. These memory chips are the fastest, but most expensive, type of storage.


25.What is function of auxillary memory?

Ans. Auxiliary Storage = Secondary Storage

Auxiliary storage holds what is not currently being processed. This is the stuff that is “filed away”, but is ready to be pulled out when needed.
It is nonvolatile, meaning that turning the power off does not erase it.
Auxiliary Storage is used for:
· · Input – data and programs
· · Output – saving the results of processing
So, Auxiliary Storage is where you put last year’s tax info, addresses for old customers, programs you may or may not ever use, data you entered yesterday – everything that is not being used right now.

26.What is magnetic disk?

Ans. Of the various types of Auxiliary Storage, the types used most often involve some type of magnetic disk. These come in various sizes and materials, as we shall see. This method uses magnetism to store the data on a magnetic surface.
Advantages:high storage capacity
reliable
gives direct access to data
A drive spins the disk very quickly underneath a read/write head, which does what its name says. It reads data from a disk and writes data to a disk

27.Types of magnetic disks?

Ans. Diskette / Floppy Disk
5¼”
(not used much now!)
large floppy gif
3½”
(starting to die out, too)
small floppy gif
Both sizes are made of mylar with an oxide coating. The oxide provides the magnetic quality for the disk. The “floppy” part is what is inside the diskette covers – a very floppy piece of plastic (i.e. the mylar)

28.Tell about hard disk?

Ans. These consist of 1 or more metal platters which are sealed inside a case. The Western Digital hard drivemetal is one which is magnetic. The hard disk is usually installed inside the computer’s case, though there are removable and cartridge types, also.

Technically the hard drive is what controls the motion of the hard disks which contain the data. But most people use “hard disk” and “hard drive” interchangeably. They don’t make that mistake for floppy disks and floppy drives. It is clearer with floppies that the drive and the disk are separate things.

29.What is BIOS?

Ans. The BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) is a set of instructions on a ROM chip (Read-Only Memory) that controls how the hardware and the operating system communicate. It’s a very limited set of instructions.

30.What is system software?

Ans. System software is a catch-all term for the programs that handle the running of your computer’s hardware. The two main categories are: utility programs operating systems

Screen  with logos of utility programsScreen with logos of operating systems

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1 Comment »

  1. good stuff bro!!!very informative .keep the good work…best of luck !!!!!!!!

    Comment by rohankumar choudhari — September 1, 2010 @ 5:26 am | Reply


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